Additionally, adversaries might scatter USB flash storage devices, CDs and DVDs containing malicious content in the car park of targeted users. What is the Essential 8? Some jump servers might require limited internet access if they are used to administer defined computers located outside of the organisation’s local network. Educate employees to lock their computer screen whenever they are away from their computer. The ACSC has witnessed application control conflict with anti-malware software from a different vendor that launched itself with a random filename in an attempt to hide from malware. Web browsers are configured to block java from the internet. There is an industry-standard dictionary for publicly disclosed vulnerabilities and exposures known as Common Vulnerabilities and Exposure (CVE) which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). Implement a web proxy that decrypts and inspects encrypted HTTPS traffic for malicious content, especially HTTPS communications with unfamiliar websites. Cyber security threat mitigation refers to policies and processes put in place by companies to help prevent security incidents and data breaches as well as limit the extent of damage when security attacks do happen.. Such controls include ‘micro-segmentation’ firewalling implemented by the virtualisation platform layer, software-based firewalling implemented in individual computers and virtual machines, and ‘IPsec Server and Domain Isolation’. Multi-factor authentication uses at least two of the following authentication factors: passwords, Universal 2nd Factor security keys, physical one-time password tokens, biometrics or smartcards. The mitigation strategies can … Refer to the implementation guidance provided for mitigation strategy ‘Patch applications’. Constrain VPN and other remote access, wireless connections, IoT devices, as well as user-owned laptops, smartphones and tablets which are part of a BYOD implementation. Patch or mitigate computers exposed to ‘extreme risk’ security vulnerabilities within 48 hours of the security vulnerability being identified. Organisations need to verify the effectiveness of application control periodically and especially after installing new software. Breaking down the ASD’s “top four” strategies to mitigate cyber security incidents. Share with users the anecdotal details of previous cyber security incidents affecting the organisation and similar organisations, highlighting the impact that such incidents have to the organisation and to the user. Paying for cyber insurance isn’t a substitute for investing in cyber security protection by implementing these mitigation strategies, although cyber insurance might encourage organisations to implement these mitigation strategies to reduce the cost of their cyber insurance premium. Further recommendations are given to test the backup process whenever significant, or related changes are made to infrastructure or systems. Microsoft Office macros are only allowed to execute in documents from Trusted Locations where write access is limited to personnel whose role is to vet and approve macros. Alternatively, adversaries might use a keystroke logger or the ‘pass the hash’ technique, avoiding the need to crack passphrase hashes. an increased proportion of spear phishing emails and other indicators of malicious activity that users detect and report to the organisation’s IT security team. Some malicious insiders are motivated by money, coercion, ideology, ego or excitement, and might steal a copy of customer details or intellectual property. Perform content scanning after email traffic is decrypted. There are a variety of approaches to deploying patches to applications and operating systems running on user computers, based on the organisation’s risk tolerance, as well as how many applications the organisation uses where the applications are legacy, unsupported, developed in-house or poorly designed. Reasons cited are the cost and availability of CISO, the price and availability of experts the CISO would then hire to integrate multiple disparate vendor technologies, and the lack of awareness that Security spans the whole organisation, not being solely an IT function. Ransomware denies access to data, typically by encrypting it, until a monetary ransom is paid within a specified time period. Educate users as to why following cyber security policies helps them to protect and appropriately handle the sensitive data they have been entrusted to handle. Multi-factor authentication is used to authenticate all users when accessing important data repositories. Use a gateway firewall to require use of a split DNS server, an email server and an authenticated web proxy server for outbound web connections. Continuous incident detection and response with automated … Application Whitelisting/Application Control  User education can complement technical mitigation strategies. Hunt to discover cyber security incidents based on knowledge of adversary tradecraft. This can assist in detecting spear phishing emails as an intrusion vector. This baseline has been created to allow organisations, particularly small to medium businesses to focus on improving security controls to reduce the risk of a cybersecurity incident occurring. Users should also report potential cyber security incidents, including suspicious phone calls such as unidentified callers attempting to solicit details about the organisation’s IT environment. This approach has higher potential user resistance and cost, though some vendor solutions reduce the cost by running the virtualised environment on the user’s computer or in public cloud computing infrastructure to avoid the organisation having to build dedicated virtualised environments in their own data centre. Preferably block all executable content by default and use a process to enable selected users to access specific executable content if a business justification exists. Use antivirus software from different vendors for gateways versus computers. End-point Anti-malware solution – May be able to detect malicious code and prevent execution. Further guidance on securing content management systems is available at https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/securing-content-management-systems. A frequently used technique by attackers to encourage users to execute the code is to place what appears to be a genuine Microsoft message instructing the user to enable Add-ins, content and/or editing. If implemented correctly, it can make it significantly more difficult for adversaries to locate and gain access to the organisation’s important (sensitive or high-availability) data. This mitigation strategy has a comparatively very high cost of skilled staff resources. The complementary Strategies to Mitigate Cyber Security Incidents publication doesn’t explicitly provide mitigation guidance for the threat of ‘business email compromise’ or threats to industrial control systems. Every day, new vulnerabilities and exploits are … In such cases, activities such as application execution or network communication is denied by default and only activity explicitly approved of by system administrators and network administrators to meet business requirements is allowed to occur. Remove CPassword values (MS14-025). For the purpose of this document, the definition of the malicious insider threat excludes non-malicious employees who unintentionally and inadvertently facilitate a cyber security incident, for example by interacting with malicious emails sent by external adversaries – in this case the employee is not the threat, rather they are a weakness that the external threat is exploiting. Other malicious insiders are motivated by revenge or disgruntlement due to reasons such as a negative job performance review, a denied promotion or involuntary termination of employment, and might cause damage such as destroying data and preventing computers/networks from functioning. 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